THE LAW OF MOSES
Outline by Clinton D. Hamilton
I. HISTORICAL VIEW OF ITS ENACTMENT
A. Covenant at Mt. Sinai. Ex. 19:4-8. Given to Jews.
B. Law was given at Sinai.
C. Laws given during Forty Years Wandering.
1. Kadesh-Barnea after sending of spies. Num. 15:1-41. 2. Kadesh-Barnea after Korah's rebellion.
a. Laws for priestly support. Num. 18:1-32.
b. Law for cleansing from dead body. Num. 19:1-22.
3. Plains of Moab after eastern settlement. Num. 35:9-36:13.
a. Cities of Refuge.
b. Addition to the law of inheritance.
D. Summary given by Moses. Deut. 5:1-26:19. On Plains of Moab in 40th year, 11th month, first day after departure from Egypt.
II. THE FUNDAMENTAL LAW
A. The Covenant at Mt. Sinai. Ex. 19:4-8.
B. The Decalogue. Ex. 20:1-17.
III. THE RELIGIOUS CODE
Chapter I. The Law of Sacrifice.
A. Regulations common to all animal offerings. Ex. 20:24; Lev.1:5,10,14-15; 3:1-2; 4:3,6-7,13,15; 17:1,9; 22:17- 29. 1. Animals offered: cows, sheep, goats, doves, pigeons.
2. Condition of the animal: It must be without blemish and perfect and not younger than 8 days.
3. The offerer shall lay his hand upon the head of the victim. Lev. 1:3-6; 3:1-2; 4:3, 13-15.
4. The blood was to be sprinkled at designated places or poured out at the base of the altar. Lev. 1:5,15; 4:5-7.
5. The perfection of Christ typified in the perfection of the animals. Heb. 9;14; 1 Pet. 1:18-19.
B. Where sacrifices were to be offered. Ex. 20:24; Lev. 17:1-9; Deut. 12:13.
C. The Several Kinds of Offerings. Ex. 29:38-42; Lev. 1:1- 6:13; 6:19-30; 7:1-21; 28-38; Num. 15:1-11; 28:11-15.
1. The Burnt Offering. Ex. 29:38-42; Lev. 1:1-17; 6:8- 13; Num. 28:1-13.
a. It was to be all burned.
b. It was a continual offering. Every day one he lamb in the morning and one he lamb in the evening, two extra for the Sabbath, one the first day of each month two young bullocks, one lamb, and seven he lambs a year old with a meal and drink offering for each. One the Sabbath and first day of the month these were in addition to the regular burnt offerings.
2. Meal Offerings. Lev. 2:1-16.
a. The articles of the offering: fine flour, oil, frankincense, and salt. No leaven or honey.
b. Disposal of the offering: Part burned and part for the priests.
c. Occasions of the meal offering. Num. 15:1-11. To accompany the burnt offerings, vows and free-will offering or set feasts.
3. Peace Offering. Lev. 3:1-17; 7:11-21,28,34.
a. Articles of the offering: Male or female of the herd and flock. The fat of the intestines, kidneys and all of its fat was burned.
b. Disposal of the offering: It was eaten by the offerer, his family and friends. The fore- shoulder or waive went to Aaron and his sons, the hind-quarter or heave thigh, to the officiating priest. c. Time of eating. Must be eaten on the same day as offered except with vows and free- will offerings --then on the first and second day. No unclean person could eat it.
d. Occasions of peace offerings:
1) Thanksgiving to God.
2) Vow or free-will offering.
NOTE: The peace offerings were every time a feast.
4. The sin offering. Lev. 4:1-6:7,24,30; 7:1-10.
a. Disposal of the Offering: All the fat burned. If blood were sprinkled in the Holy Place, all the animal had to be burned, but if the blood was sprinkled on the Brazen Altar, the flesh was given to the offering priest. Whatever touched the offering was holy.
b. Articles of the offering: For the sin of ignorance: The appointed priest must offer a bullock. The whole congregation must offer a young bullock. A ruler must offer a male goat. The common people must bring a female goat or lamb. If too poor, bring one turtledove or pigeon or 3-1/3 quarts, 1/10 of an ephah of fine flour.
c. Purpose of sin and trespass offering: If the sin was against holy things, the offering was to God; and if against a neighbor, the property must be restored fully and 1/5 added as well as an offering brought to Jehovah.
5. The order of the offerings.
a. Sin offering: for atonement.
b. Burnt offering: for consecration.
c. Peace offering: for harmony and peace.
d. Meal offering: for special occasions.
Chapter 2, The Priesthood.
A. The Family and their Vestments. Ex. 28:1-43; 39:1-43.
1. The Vestments.
a. The coat of linen.
b. Linen breeches.
c. Miter (hat or cap).
e. Blue robe: made of blue, bordered at the bottom with golden bells and pomegranates.
f. Ephod: A coat opening down the side about average length with two shoulder pieces made of onyx stones with the names of six tribes engraved on each stone.
g. Breastplate: A span square woven with gold, blue, purple, scarlet, and fine twined linen. It was suspended from the shoulders with gold chains and blue lace held down the lower part. Twelve stones were arranged upon it, each bearing a name of a tribe, and inside were the Urim and Thummin.
Note: The garments of the common priests were all white signifying purity. There were seven (7) articles of clothing for the high priest signifying the perfection of Christ's character.
B. Consecration of Priests. Ex. 29:1-37; Lev. 8:1-36.
C. Support of the Priesthood.
1. From the altar. Num. 18:8-20; Lev. 7:8.
a. Of burnt offering: the skin.
b. Peace offering: the waive breast and heave thigh.
c. Offering: all flesh except that of the animals whose blood was taken into the Holy Place.
d. The best of the firstfruits and the firstlings of the flock.
2. A tithe of the tithe. They were to get 10% of the Levites 10%.
D. The Law of Holiness for the Priesthood. Lev. 21:1- 22:33. 1. He must not be defiled with the dead.
2. He must make marks upon his person.
3. He shall not marry lewd or divorced women.
4. If the daughter played the harlot, she was to be burned with fire.
5. He must not defile himself with any dead body or profane woman.
6. Any physical blemish would prevent his being priest.
7. He could not officiate when unclean.
8. People who might eat holy things:
b. Those born in his house or bought with his money.
c. Widowed daughter without child.
Chapter 3, The Law of the Levites.
A. Place of Encampment and Employment. Num. 3:1-51; 4:15,25, 31,32.
a. West: Gershonites.
b. South: Kohathites.
c. North: Merarites.
d. East (front): Moses, Aaron and his sons.
3. Their employment.
a. Kohathites carried the furniture.
b. Gershonites carried the dry goods.
c. Merarites carried the hardware.
B. Their means of support. Num. 18:21-24; Deut. 14:22-29; 26:12-13.
1. They were supported by getting all of the tithes from the other tribes.
2. The tithe was given at the end of every three years, collected within the gates of the city. Deut. 14:27-29; 26:12. (The strangers, widows and orphans shared this tithe.)
Chapter 4, Ceremonial Uncleanliness.
A. Uncleanness from Childbirth. Lev. 12:1-8.
B. Uncleanness from Leprosy. Lev. 13:1-14, 57.
a. The Priest would decide whether it was Leprosy.
b. A person had to dwell alone, his clothing torn, a white cloth around his upper lip and his hair loose, and cry "Unclean" when any drew near.
c. A garment must be burned, a house must be torn down and the rubbish carried to an unclean place. Lev. 13:45-46, 52; 14:43-45.
3. What done by the cured individual. Lev. 14:1-9.
a. A priest must look at him and see if clean.
b. Two live clean birds and cedar wood, scarlet wool, and hyssop would be offered.
c. Kill one bird in the vessel over running water.
d. Dip the other bird, the cedar wood, the scarlet, and hyssop in the bloody water.
e. Sprinkle seven times the one to be cleansed.
f. Let the live bird loose so it would fly away.
g. Person must wash clothes, shave, and bathe.
h. Come into the camp, but dwell outside the ten for seven days.
i. Shave again, wash clothes, and bathe all over.
j. Pronounced clean!
4. Offerings completing the process. Lev. 14:12-20.
a. Trespass offering, sin offering, meal offering. Compare Mk. 1:44.
b. Note the distinction of pour, dip and sprinkle. Lev. 14:15-16; 26-27.
C. Uncleanness from Bodily Secretion. Lev. 15:1-33.
1. The cases of uncleanness of this source. Of seven days uncleanness.
a. Issue of the flesh.
b. Protracted issue in the flesh.
c. Issue of the blood.
2. Mode of Cleanness.
a. One day uncleanness: Bathe flesh and wash clothes, be unclean until evening.
b. Seven day uncleanness: Bathe flesh and wash clothes, on the 8th day offer two doves, one for sin offering and one for burnt offering.
D. Uncleanness from a Dead Body. Num. 19:1-22.
1. Provision for this uncleanness.
a. A red heifer without spot and blemish taken without the camp and burned before the Priest.
b. Cedar wood, hyssop, and scarlet wool shall be burned with the heifer.
c. The water is poured over the ashes and sprinkled upon the person to be cleansed.
2. This is called the water of separation because it separates the things unclean.
Note: Water alone was never sprinkled upon anybody or anything in the Old Testament. Only two cases of purification by water is used: In cleansing from Leprosy and from a Dead body.
Chapter 5, The Holy Days.
A. Feast of the Passover.
1. This feast was enacted in Egypt to be kept on the night of the 14th day of the first month. Ex. 12:14-20, 25-28, 43-51; 13:3-10. Called the Feast of Unleavened Bread in the Book of the Covenant. Ex. 23:14-15.
2. A sheaf of firstfruits was brought. Lev. 23:4-15.
3. For the unclean and travellers, it was to be kept on the 14th day of the second month. However, this was used only in case of necessity. Num. 9:1-12.
4. Additional offerings. Num. 28:16-24. Two young bullocks, one ram, and 7 he-lambs on each of the seven days in addition to the regular burnt offerings.
5. Deuteronomy adds that the Passover is to be kept in one place. 16:1-18.
B. The Feast of Weeks or Harvests.
a. Two loaves of 1/10 ephah of fine flour for firstfruits.
b. Burnt offering of one young bullock, 7 he-lambs with their meal and drink offerings. One he-goat for a sin offering and two he-lambs a year old for a sin offering. A holy convocation on that day.
4. Known in the New Testament as the feast of Pentecost.
C. The Feast of Trumpets. Lev. 23:23-25. When and how observed.
D. The Annual Atonement. Lev. 16:1-34; Num. 29:7-11.
1. Offerings for the occasion.
a. One bullock for sin offering and a ram for the burnt offering for oneself and family.
b. For the congregation, two he-goats for a sin offering and one lamb for a burnt offering.
2. The atonement for the family. Kill the bullock of the sin offering for oneself and take the censer of live coals which the Priest shall take inside the veil and covering the seat with a cloud of incense, he shall sprinkle the blood of the bullock seven times.
3. Atonement for the people.
a. The goat of the sin offering shall be killed and its blood sprinkled upon the mercy seat for the sins of the people.
b. No man shall be in the tent but Aaron.
4. The disposal of the other goat. The sins of the people were put upon the scape goat and the scape goat was led away into the wilderness.
5. The time was the 10th day of the 7th month, and the design was to cleanse from sin! Remembrance was made for theirs sins for a year. cf. Heb. 10:1-3.
6. The extra burnt offering. Num. 29:7-11. One young bullock, one ram, seven he-goats.
E. Feast of Tabernacles.
a. The first and the eighth ay were the days of holy convocation. Lev. 23:33, 36, 39-44.
b. They dwelt in booths on the housetops, outside the gates, or in vacant places.
c. The purpose was to preserve the memory of their deliverance from Egypt and cultivate their gratitude and reverence. Corresponds to our celebration called thanksgiving.
Note: Works of mercy, works of necessity, and works of religion could be done on holy days.
3. Offerings made. Num. 29:12-40.
a. 13,12,11,10,9,8,7 young bullocks were offered (decreased one each day), two rams and fourteen he-lambs was the daily sacrifice. One he-goat was a sin offering.
b. The greatest number of animals sacrificed at any feasts.
F. The Sabbath. Ex. 16:23; 28:11; Deut. 5:12-15.
Chapter 6, The Sacred Vows.
A. Nazarite Vow. Num. 6:1-21.
a. Offer one he-lamb one year old for burnt offering. b. Offer one ewe-lamb a year old for sin offering.
c. Offer one lamb for peace offering and a basket of unleavened bread with a meal and sin offering.
d. Shave the head at the door of the tabernacle and burn the hair with the peace offering.
3. Occasion: when a man desired to be especially holy.
B. Vows of Women. Num. 30:1-16.
C. Redemption from vows. Lev. 27:1-34.
1. In case of persons:
a. 20-60 yrs: Male, 50 shekels; Female, 30 shekels.
b. 5-20 yrs: Male, 20 shekels; Female, 10 shekels.
c. 1 mo. to 5 yr: Male, 15 shekels; Female,10 shekels.
d. 60 upward: Male, 25 shekels; Female, 10 shekels.
e. If too poor, the Priest shall make an estimation according to the ability to pay.
2. In case of a beast.
a. Clean animals could not be redeemed or exchanged.
b. Unclean animals might be redeemed by adding 20% to the value set by the priest.
3. In case of a house, may be redeemed by adding 20% to the estimation by the priest.
4. In case of a piece of land.
a. Redeemed by adding 20% to estimated value.
b. The estimation is according to barley production.
5. Firstling not to be sanctified, belongs to Jehovah.
6. All devoted things belong to the Lord.
Chapter 7, Witchcraft and Idolatry.
A. Law against Witchcraft. Lev. 20:6, 27.
a. Passing through fire, human sacrifice.
b. Divination, claiming to find out truth miraculous.
c. Augury, signs in animal life destines things.
d. Enchanter, one who cast spells.
e. Sorcerer, one who deals with evil spirits.
f. Charmer, one who makes other people do things the Charmer desires.
g. Consultor with familiar spirits, communes with a person to give answers.
h. Wizard, practices witchcraft.
i. Necromancer, those who call up the dead.
3. Abomination to the Lord, because they are superstitious, leading away from God.
B. Molech worship prohibited. Lev. 20:1-5.
C. Enticing a person to idolatry. Deut. 13:1-18.
a. Whole people to execute this law.
b. Innocent to be spared.
c. Even the cattle were to be destroyed so that no motive would exists except zeal for God.
Chapter 8, Articles of Animal Food.
A. Fat and blood prohibited. Lev. 7:23-27.
B. Flesh that dies a natural death. Lev. 17:15-16.
C. Clean and unclean beasts. Lev. 11:1-47; Deut. 14:1-29. 1. Clean Beasts had cloven feed and chewed the cud.
2. Any water animal with fins and scales was clean, others live in the mud and are scavengers.
3. Birds of prey and those living on carrion are unclean. 4. Winged creeping things are clean if they hop, as locusts.
5. When one touches an unclean animal, they are unclean.
6. Creeping things without wings must not be touched.
7. Reptiles are unclean.
Chapter 9, Personal and Domestic Laws.
A. Laws of Dress. Lev. 19:19; Deut. 22:11.
B. Of Personal Disfigurement. Lev. 19:27-28. Individuals must not disfigure the body, for this custom was common to idolatry.
Chapter 10, Ethical Precepts.
8. Duty toward stray animals and/or lost articles. Deut. 22:1-4.
9. Kindness to mother birds. Deut. 22:6-7.
10. Battlements on the roof of safety. Deut. 22:8.
11. Yoking and ox and ass. Deut. 22:10.
12. Muzzling. Deut. 25:4.
IV. THE CIVIL CODE.
Chapter 1, The Sexual Relations.
A. Unlawful marriage. Lev. 18:1-18; 20:11-21.
a. Incest: marriage and/or sexual relation with someone closer than the law permits.
b. Penalty: death to both parties.
B. Unlawful intercourse.
3. Rape. Deut. 22:25-29.
a. For a damsel betrothed: death for the man.
b. For a damsel not betrothed: the girls father was paid 50 shekels and the man marries the girl.
4. Fornication with a maid including whoredom.
Ex. 22:16-17; Deut. 23:17; Lev. 21:9. Penalty is death except for a maid that is a virgin -- she must marry the man.
5. Bestiality. Lev. 20:15-16. Penalty: both man and beast shall be killed!
6. Sodomy. Lev. 20:13. Both men were to be killed.
C. Unlawful Marriages.
D. The Law of Jealousy.
a. If the tokens of her virginity are shown, her husband shall be chastised and compelled to live with her having paid a fine of 100 shekels.
b. If she is guilty, she shall be stoned.
3. Eunuchs and illegitimates. Deut. 23:1-2. There were forbidden in the congregation of the people.
E. Divorce. Deut. 22:19, 28-29; 24:1-4.
a. False charge against the bride of being impure.
b. Mistreating a virgin.
3. This easy divorce was permitted on account of the heart being hardened. Mt. 19:3-9.
Chapter 2, The Law of Inheritance.
A. The general law and its origin. Num. 27:1-11.
Chapter 3, Provisions for the Poor.
A. Minor Provisions. Lev. 19:9; 25:35-38; Deut. 23:19-20; 24:6,10,17,19-22.
1. Usury forbidden. Lev. 25:35-38; Deut. 23:19-20.
a. Tend to make the lenders let out just as little as possible to borrowers.
b. Poor would not have too much to pay back.
c. Foreigners could be charged usury.
2. Law of pledges. Ex. 22:26-27; Deut. 24:6,10-13,17.
a. A garment taken as a pledge had to be returned before the setting of the sun.
b. No millstone could be taken as a pledge.
c. One could not enter his neighbor's house to get the pledge.
d. No injustice shall be done to the stranger, fatherless or widow.
3. The law of gleaning. Deut. 24:19-22; Lev. 19:9.
a. Field corners were not to be cut but sufficient left for poor.
b. Leave what falls out of shock.
B. The Sabbatical Year. Ex. 23:10-11; Lev. 25:1-8.
a. The seventh brought relief from all debts.
b. God promised to bless the kindhearted.
c. This would take care of the suffering poor.
C. The Jubilee. Lev. 25:8-55.
a. Land returned to rightful owner.
b. Houses could be redeemed at any time within year.
5. Effect on Hebrew bondmen. Bondmen will be set free by redemption until the Jubilee year, or would be automatically free after Jubilee year.
Chapter 4, The Law of Servitude.
A. In Book of the Covenant. Ex. 21:2-11,16,20,21; 22:14.
1. Rights of the Hebrew bondman.
a. A slave could serve 6 years, but freed in 7th.
b. The wife and children belonged to the master, except when they had been taken into bondage by him, then they could go out when he did.
c. If the slave desired to continue his service, his master shall bring him to the tent of meeting and bore his ear with an awl, and he shall serve forever.
2. Rights of Hebrew bondwomen. v. 7-11; Deut. 15:12-17.
a. A man could sell his daughter but if she became married, she was free.
b. The Hebrew woman was to work for 6 years with freedom in the 7th. She was to be furnished liberally out of the flock and grain and wine.
3. Kidnapping. Ex. 21:16; Deut. 24:7. Penalty: Death!
4. Killing a slave by chastising him. Ex. 21:20-21.
a. If killed outright, master was to be punished.
b. If they lived a day or two and died, the master was free, because would show no intent to murder.
B. As given in Leviticus 25:35-55.
1. Further rights of Hebrew bondmen. 35-43.
a. A man sold on account of poverty was not to be regarded as a slave, but as a hired servant and not to be ruled over with rigor.
b. He was to serve to the Jubilee, if this Jubilee came before he had worked out seven years. Ex. 21:1-6.
2. The permanent slaves.
a. These were strangers not of Hebrew blood.
b. Only these could be chastised, not Hebrews.
3. Rights of a Hebrew sold to a foreigner.
a. He may be redeemed after sold by one of his brethren, or if he is able, by himself.
b. The price was according to the time he had worked until the year of Jubilee.
C. Provisions for freed men. Deut. 15:12-18.
1. When a man went free, he was to be furnished liberally out of the flock and provisions of his master.
2. To those released in the year of Jubilee, they needed nothing because the fields and orchards were opened to them.
D. Rights of Foreign Bondmen.
1. Protection of life and limb. Ex. 21:20-21; 26,28.
a. If died by chastising, master shall be punished.
b. If member of body injured, the slave is freed.
2. There was no release of foreign bondmen. Lev. 25:44-46.
3. No fugitive shall be returned, but to dwell in the place that he has chosen where he likes best. Deut. 23:15-16.
Chapter 5, Crime and Punishment.
A. Capital crimes.
1. Murder. Ex. 21:12-16; cf. 1 Kings 1:50; 2:28; Lev. 24:17.
a. Penalty for first degree murder is death.
b. Second degree murder would be avenged by the member of the family.
c. More than one witness necessary for conviction. Num. 35:30; Deut. 17:6; Heb. 10:28-29.
2. Murder by vicious animal. Ex. 21:30-32.
a. Animal to be killed and owner pay a penalty.
b. If the animal's viciousness has been reported to its owner, and he does nothing about it, he shall be killed as well as the animal.
3. Kidnapping. Ex. 21:16; Deut. 24:7. Penalty: Death.
4. Idolatry. Deut. 13:1-18.
5. Blasphemy. Lev. 24:10-16. Stoned.
6. False prophesying. Deut. 18:20-22; cf. 1 Kings 18:40. 7. Witchcraft. Lev. 20:27.
8. Rape of betrothed or married woman. Deut. 22:23-29. Death of both parties if committed in the city, because the woman crieth not out. Death of the man if committed in the country.
9. Adultery. Deut. 22:22. Death to both!
10. Whoredom. Deut. 22:13-21; Lev. 21:9. Death by fire.
11. Incest. Lev. 20:11-14. Both parties die by fire.
12. Sodomy. Lev. 20:13. Death to both parties.
13. Bestiality. Lev. 20:15-16. Both man and beast killed.
14. Smiting or cursing a parent. Ex. 21:15,17. Death.
15. Stubbornness and rebellion to parent. Deut. 21:18- 21. Death.
16. Rebellion against judges. Deut. 17:8-13. Death.
17. Swearing away a man's life. Deut. 19:16-21. False testimony brings death.
a. Six cities in the land of Canaan were cities of Refuge, three on each side of Jordon. The Levites lived in these cities.
b. A man guilty of manslaughter could flee to one of these cities and there be judged concerning the case. If, however, the avenger of blood should overtake the man before the reached the city, he could slay him.
c. The avenger of blood could kill the slayer if he caught him outside of the city of Refuge even if his killing was accidental. The slayer must remain in the city of Refuge until the death of the High Priest; then, if he was innocent, he could return home.
C. Maiming. Ex. 21:18-19,22-27; Lev. 24:17-22.
D. Other crimes and penalties. Ex. 22:1-15; Num. 35:31-34; Deut. 19:14; 21:1-10; 25:1-3.
a. Stolen ox: restore 5 oxen.
b. Stolen sheep: restore 4 sheep.
c. Restore double if caught with the theft.
d. Shall be sold for his theft if he fails to make restitution.
2. Breach of trust. Ex. 22:7-15. Restitution.
3. Trespass by beast or fire. Ex. 22:5-6. Restitution.
4. Removing landmarks. Deut. 19:14.
5. Limit to scourging. Deut. 25:1-3.
a. Scourging was inflicted for any crime where another penalty was not mentioned.
b. Limit was 40 stripes.
c. Actual number was 39, for fear of mistake. cf. 2 Cor. 11:24. If given over 40, the scourged could give the same punishment to the scourger.
6. Inquest over the dead. Deut. 21:1-9.
a. If a man was found slain and no one knew the slayer, the judges and elders were to measure the distance to the cities round about.
b. The elders of that city nearest were to take an heifer and bring it to a rough valley and strike its head off.
c. Then, the elders next to the slain man shall wash their hands over the heifer and say, "Our hands have not shed this, neither have I seen it."
Chapter 6, Military and Judicial Laws.
A. Exemption from military services. Deut. 20:1-9; 24:5.
B. Conduct of Sieges. Deut. 20:1-20.
1. Those who resisted were to be slain. This would cause other cities not to resist.
2. Fruit trees were to be spared because of their usefulness.
C. League with the Canaanites forbidden. Deut. 7:1-5.
D. The Judiciary. Deut. 16:18-20; 17:8-13.
E. Laws concerning the King.
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